VCD (v1.1 and v2.0) - Video CD

Video - MPEG-1, 352x240 resolution, progressive lines (non-interlaced), at 23.97 or 29.97 frames per sec
Audio - MPEG-1 layer II, stereo, 44.1 KHz sample rate, from 32 to 384 Kbps

VCD's give you compressed MPEG1 on a CD, but that does not give you much play time.  So the trick, if you are so inclined, is to create VCD-compliant MPG's and then burn them onto a DVD where they will be converted to 720x480 VOB, MPEG-2 format files.  A bit blurry, but you can fit a hell of a lot of minutes onto one DVD !!!

*** also see Videohelp VCD   alt.binaries.vcd FAQ 

*** to author VCD's you can use VCDeasy  (VCDeasy Guide

Format
VCD
SVCD
 
DVD
HDDVD
HDTV
(WMVHD)
AVI
DivX
XviD
WMV
MOV
Quick-
Time
RM
Real-
Media
AVI
DV
Resolution
NTSC/PAL
352x240
352x288
480x480
480x576
 
720x480²
720x576²
1920x1080²
1280x720²
640x480² 640x480² 320x240² 720x480
720x576
Video
Compression
MPEG1
MPEG2
MPEG2, MPEG1
MPEG2
(WMV-
MPEG4)
MPEG4
Sorenson, Cinepak, MPEG4 ...
RM
DV
Video bitrate
1150kbps
~2000kbps
~5000kbps
~20Mbps
(~8Mbps)
~1000kbps
~1000kbps
~350kbps
25Mbps
Audio
Compression
MP1
MP1
MP1, MP2, AC3, DTS, PCM MP1, MP2, AC3, DTS, PCM MP3, WMA, OGG, AAC, AC3 QDesign Music, MP3 ... RM DV
Audio bitrate
224kbps
~224kbps
~448kbps
~448kbps
~128kbps
~128kbps
~64kbps
~1500kbps
Size/min
10
MB/min
10-20
MB/min
30-70
MB/min
~150MB/min
(~60MB/min)
 
4-10
MB/min
4-20
MB/min
2-5
MB/min
216MB/min
Min/74min CD
74min
35-60min
10-20min ~4min
(~10min)
60-180min 30-180
min
120-300
min
3min
Hours/DVD
N/A
N/A
1-2hrs
(2-5hrsͺ)
~30min
(~1hrs)
7-18hrs 3-18hrs 14-35hrs 20min
Hours/
DualLayerDVD
N/A
N/A
2-4hrs
(5-9hrsͺ)
~55min
(~2hrs)
13-30hrs 6-30hrs 25-65hrs 37min
DVD Player Compatibility
Great Good Excellent None Few None None None
Computer CPU Usage
Low High Very High Super high Very High High Low High
Quality
Good Great* Excellent* Superb* Great* Great* Decent* Excellent

kbps = thousand bits per second
Mbps = million bits per second
² approximately resolution, it can be higher or lower
~ approximately bitrate, it can be higher or lower
ͺ DVD with lower video quality, similiar to VCD/SVCD video quality
* the video quality depends on the bitrate and the video resolution, higher bitrate and higher resolution generally means better video quality but bigger file size

Video CD 1.1
This is the most basic Video CD specification dating back to 1993 4 , which has the followingcharacteristics:
• One mode 2 mixed form ISO-9660 track containing file pointers to the information areas.
• Up to 98 multiplex-ed mpeg-1 audio/video streams or cd-da audio tracks.
• Up to 500 mpeg sequence entry points used as chapter divisions.
The Video CD specification requires the multiplex-ed mpeg-1 stream to have a cbr of less than 174300 bytes (1394400 bits) per second 5 in order to accommodate single speed cd-rom drives. The specification allows for the following two resolutions 6 :
• 352 x 240 @ 29.97 Hz (ntsc sif).
• 352 x 240 @ 23.976 Hz (film sif).
The cbr mpeg-1, layer II audio stream is fixed at 224 kbps with 1 stereo or 2 mono channels.It is recommended to keep the video bit-rate under 1151929.1 bps 7.

Video CD 2.0
About two years after the Video CD 1.1 specification came out, an improved Video CD 2.0 standard was published in 1995. This one added the following items to the features already available in the Video CD 1.1 specification:
• Support for mpeg segment play items (SPI ), consisting of still pictures, motion pictures and/or audio (only) streams was added. See Section 1.6.2 [Segment Items], page 9.
• Support for interactive playback control (PBC) was added.
• Support for playing related access by providing a scan point index file was added.(‘/EXT/SCANDATA.DAT’)
• Support for closed captions.
• Support for mixing ntsc and pal content.
By adding PAL support to the Video CD 1.1 specification, the following resolutions became
available:
• 352 x 240 @ 29.97 Hz (ntsc sif).
• 352 x 240 @ 23.976 Hz (film sif).
• 352 x 288 @ 25 Hz (pal sif).
For segment play items the following audio encodings became available:
• Joint stereo, stereo or dual channel audio streams at 128, 192, 224 or 384 kbit/sec bit-rate.
• Mono audio streams at 64, 96 or 192 kbit/sec bit-rate.
 

VCD Folder/File Structure - the root has no files (just sub-folders)

NOTE:  you can tell if a disc is VCD or SVCD. VCD has a .dat file in the MPEGAV folder, and SVCD has a .mpg file there

NOTE:  the simplest VCD would have the following 5 subfolders: 

Folder Files Explanation
VCD INFO.VCD Album and disc identification
  ENTRIES.VCD Entry point list for up to 500 entries
  PSD.VCD Optional Play Sequence Descriptor
  LOT.VCD Optional List ID Offset file
MPEGAV AVSEQnn.DAT MPEG files, max 99 tracks, the main movie, trailers, extras, menus...
CDDA AUDIOnn.DAT Optional CD Audio files
SEGMENT ITEMnnn.DAT Segment play items, max 999 segments, still pictures or still menus
KARAOKE KARINFO.xxx Optional Karaoke information files
EXT PSD_X.VCD Optional extended version of PSD,VCD
  LOT_X.VCD Optional extended version of LOT.VCD
  SCANDATA.DAT Optional list of I-frame addresses
  CAPTnn.DAT Optional Closed Caption data
CDI (undefined) CD-i program and data files

Authoring VCD's

 How to author a basic VCD
- How to start with VCDEasy
This guide explains how to start with VCDEasy. With this guide, you will create a very simple V...by delphi.stuff


 How to author a complex VCD

- VCD with Menu, Animated Thumbnails, video (image) background and chapters
How to make a VCD with Menu, Animated Thumbnails, video (image) background and chapters with Ne...by Omega Weapon

- How to make a VCD/SVCD with CD Audio (CDDA)
The VCD and the SVCD standard allows CD Audio(CDDA). A VCD/SVCD with CD Audio will work on all ...by Baldrick

- doom9 TSCV Guide
TSCV is a pretty complete VCD and SVCD authoring solution for VCDimager. It supports chapters, ...by Doom9

- How to create a VCD or SVCD menu and chapters with TSCV
How to create a VCD or SVCD menu and chapters with TSCV...by Sefy

- How to create a VCD or SVCD chapters with VCDEasy
How to create a VCD or SVCD chapters with VCDEasy...by Sefy

- How to author a VCD menu and chapters with Philips Video CD 2.0 Toolkit
The Philips Video CD 2.0 Toolkit is a powerful VCD authoring program once used by professionals...by Anonymous

- How to create VCD menus and chapters with VCDEasy
You'll find a lot of information that tells you how to add chapters using VCDEasy, but non...by gonz0

- Simple Menu using VCDEasy Guide 1.1 by Sullen
This guide is for creating a very basic menu with VCDEasy. When finished the menu will work ver...by Sullen